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《自然通訊》德國馬克斯普朗克學院演化人類學研究生施諾爾:腸內沒益菌 非洲坦尚尼亞哈德薩人仍健康 不會罹患大腸癌、結腸炎
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:29:57 | Neutraceutical 保健醫學
《自然通訊》德國馬克斯普朗克學院演化人類學研究生施諾爾:腸內沒益菌 非洲坦尚尼亞哈德薩人仍健康 不會罹患大腸癌、結腸炎
台灣醒報 – 2014416
【台灣醒報記者賴義中綜合報導】
一項研究發現,坦尚尼亞哈德薩人的腸道菌叢內不具有一般西方人有的腸益菌,且同樣能保持健康。
 
感覺腸胃怪怪的時候,不少人會來杯優格、優酪乳等添加益生菌的飲料,維持腸道內平衡,因此這類食品的發展愈趨興盛。不過,《自然通訊》上一篇研究發現,在非洲坦尚尼亞保有原始飲食習慣的哈德薩人,腸內雖沒有益菌生存,卻不會罹患大腸癌、結腸炎等現代飲食導致的常見腸道病症,十分特別。
哈德薩人是目前少數仍過著仍以狩獵採集維生的部落,人數僅1千人左右。就讀於德國馬克斯普朗克學院的演化人類學研究生施諾爾,採集27名年齡不等的哈德薩人的糞便,經冷凍或乾燥後,送往義大利波隆納大學分析其中的DNA及殘留營養物,發現哈德薩人的腸道菌叢生態比16名義大利人的樣本更為複雜多元。
奇異的是,佔西方人腸道菌群比例1成的比菲德氏菌,在哈德薩人的腸道內完全沒有蹤跡。研究人員另外檢視了2組非洲農民的細菌樣本,結果同樣;此外,其腸道內也長有會導致紅斑性狼瘡、牙周病或梅毒的密螺旋體,哈德薩人卻能保持健康,幾乎沒有經歷過免疫失調、糖尿病或是肥胖等因菌叢失衡導致的疾病
母乳和嬰兒食品都富含大量比菲徳氏菌,隨著年齡增長,人體內的比菲徳氏菌就會減少,但只要持續攝取乳製品,就能維持在足夠健康的量,哈德薩人之所以不具有該菌,即是因不食用乳製品。論文作者、內華達大學營養人類學家克莉壇登指出,這樣的區別顯然來自於飲食差異;現代人應重新思考什麼樣的食物才算健康。
令人驚訝的是,哈德薩男性與女性的腸道菌群,在種類和數量上有著顯著差異,過去從未有過因性別而不同的先例。這項發現反映了男女勞務分工上的區別,男性負責狩獵,食用大量的肉類和蜂蜜,女性則挖取塊莖植物,食用富含纖維的樹薯,可能因此使她們的腸道菌群更擅長分解纖維
這項研究將有助於科學家了解古代人類在遷徙的過程中,如何調適新的環境和飲食習慣,以及釐清腸道菌叢的多元性和其互動的方式。

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國人補錯鈣 豆漿、大骨含量低
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:24:50 | Osteoporosis 骨質疏鬆
國人補錯鈣 豆漿、大骨含量低
優活健康網 – 2014417
(優活健康網實習記者張瓊之/採訪報導)
隨著年齡逐漸升高,鈣質逐漸流失,以致骨質疏鬆成為人體老化的現象之一,且根據電訪調查結果表示,有9成國人未攝取足夠的乳製品,導致鈣攝取不足。
不僅如此,有超過6成國人習慣以豆漿、大骨湯來補充鈣,對此,營養師表示豆漿及大骨的含鈣量低,補鈣效果不大,應透過乳製品才是攝取鈣質的最佳來源,所以專家建議最好是每天攝取1.52杯乳製品(以1240 c.c為單位)為佳。
 
優酪乳、優格 對乳糖不耐症患者耐受性佳
但對於患有乳糖不耐症問題的7成國人來說,乳糖不耐症導致的腹瀉對身體及生活是一種困擾,尤其腹瀉對於孕婦以及高齡甚至行動不便的婦女是相當大的負擔。因此,劉怡里營養師建議民眾可改用優格或是優酪乳來取代乳製品,也有同樣的效果。因為優格及優酪乳是經由發酵而成,所以當中的乳糖於人體內較容易被消化,所以乳糖不耐症患者通常對優酪乳、優格有較好的耐受性。
 
優格挑選小撇步 成份越少越好
劉怡里營養師也提醒民眾在選購時優格時,應特別注意食品標示,以避免購買到含有添加物的優格,反而造成身體的負擔,建議民眾在挑選時成份方面最單純越好,才可以避免攝取過多了糖份及香料,造成熱量過高的現象。
最後,提醒各位喜歡享受下午茶的民眾,夏天將至,可以選擇新鮮水果搭配天然的原味無糖優格取代咖啡、蛋糕做為下午茶,除了可避免攝取過多的糖分及人工添加物外,還可以輕鬆補鈣無負擔。

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濫用雙磷酸鹽 恐下顎骨壞死
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:22:15 | Osteoporosis 骨質疏鬆
濫用雙磷酸鹽 恐下顎骨壞死
作者:【記者陳敬哲/台北報導】 | 台灣新生報 – 2014418
 
部分癌症與骨質疏鬆患者需要使用「雙磷酸鹽」藥品治療,抑制食骨細胞作用以防症狀惡化,但部分患者誤認為是補骨藥品,擅自購買或轉讓,然而不當使用恐導致副作用,最嚴重恐引起下顎骨壞死。
萬芳醫院血液腫瘤柯注意醫師劉興璟表示,多發性骨髓瘤、乳癌、攝護腺癌末期患者,為避免癌細胞持續向骨頭擴散,必須長期服用雙磷酸鹽;另外,為壓抑骨質疏鬆患者食骨細胞作用,也會服用相關藥品,避免骨質流失。
部分民眾誤認雙磷酸鹽藥品能補充骨質,卻是錯誤觀念;台大醫院口腔顎面外科主治醫師李正表示,雙磷酸鹽會緊密與骨頭結合,當食骨細胞破壞含雙磷酸鹽的骨細胞,會死亡失去侵蝕力,可避免骨頭傷害擴大,與補充骨質沒有關係
為何會引起下顎骨壞死,李正解釋,若治療牙齒時必須拔牙等複雜治療,下顎骨必須倚賴食骨細胞清除不需要組織,造骨細胞才會開始作用,幫助傷口癒合,但雙磷酸鹽抑制食骨細胞反應,讓造骨細胞無法工作,導致傷口無法痊癒
口腔有非常大量的細菌,若下顎傷口沒有辦法儘速癒合,很容易引起發炎;若沒有控制得當,受傷部位會持續過大,逐漸出現口腔疼痛、下顎與唇麻木感、齒槽骨暴露、牙齦潰爛、牙齒鬆動等,最嚴重必須切除部分下顎骨才能治療。
李正強調,使用雙磷酸鹽藥品病患,必須非常小心口腔健康,藉由清潔與定期檢查降低口腔病變發生,若要接受口腔治療,一定要告知牙醫師正在使用雙磷酸鹽藥品,讓醫師評估治療方式,降低下顎骨病變機率。

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雙磷酸鹽治骨鬆 拔牙後顎骨壞死
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:11:31 | Osteoporosis 骨質疏鬆
雙磷酸鹽治骨鬆 拔牙後顎骨壞死
作者:林宜慧台北報導 | 中時電子報 – 2014418
中國時報【林宜慧台北報導】
 
雙磷酸鹽類藥品用於治療骨質疏鬆、癌症骨轉移或多發性骨髓瘤,但服用期間若接受拔牙、植牙手術,或服藥時間太久太頻繁,恐造成顎骨壞死,甚至有引起敗血症死亡案例。
據食品藥物管理署不良反應通報,從民國88年至102年底,共接獲115件個案使用雙磷酸鹽類藥品,造成顎骨壞死或其他牙齒病變、13件造成非典型股骨骨折。115件中56件是骨鬆患者、59件為其他癌症患者,最終有13件獲得藥害救濟給付。
食藥署藥品組副組長戴雪詠指出,目前雙磷酸鹽類藥品共35張藥證,其中25張用於骨質疏鬆,其他則用於乳癌、前列腺癌等癌症骨轉移病患,以及多發性骨髓瘤、高血鈣症等患者。其中最常見有不良反應的是治療骨鬆的口服福善美錠,以及治療癌症的卓骨祂針劑
台大醫院口腔顎面外科醫師李正指出,這類藥物會抑制破骨細胞活性,也降低負責促進新骨生成的「造骨細胞」活性及數量,若這時接受拔牙、植牙等手術,傷口無法癒合,就容易造成顎骨壞死
據統計,服用3年以上福善美的骨鬆患者,顎骨壞死發生率是10001到萬分之1,而注射卓骨祂的癌症骨轉移患者顎骨壞死發生率為10分之1100分之1
李正建議,用藥3年以上或有糖尿病、免疫力相關疾病等慢性病的骨鬆患者,拔牙或植牙前應詢問開立處方的醫師,停藥3個月後再進行治療;平時每6個月定期做口腔檢查,有牙痛時,儘快告知處方醫師。

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美國McMaster University研究證實:運動讓肌膚逆齡
charles201309 在天空部落發表於08:56:36 | Sports Med 運動醫學
美國McMaster University研究證實:運動讓肌膚逆齡
20140418  
中時電子報 薛佩玉
想讓肌膚看起來更年輕?運動吧!圖片來源:摘自網路
 
美國麥克馬斯特大學McMaster University研究員發現運動另一個好處:它不僅能讓肌膚看起來更加年輕,更能讓肌膚啟動「逆齡」的階段,延緩老化
根據紐約時報The New York Times報導,位於加拿大安大略省的美國麥克馬斯特大學的科學家,以老鼠實驗證實,若老鼠持續一段時間不動,就會開始出現老化、體力衰弱,甚至精神錯亂現象;相反地,若是持續踩踏輪子則會有相反的效果,能夠維持健康的心臟、強健的肌肉與腦袋,並且促進器官的再生功能,牠們的毛髮也將持續翻灰。
將此一實驗結果應用到人體上,研究者測試29位包括男與女在內的自願者,年齡屆於2084歲之間,過半的受試者每週適度地在精力充沛的情況下,進行體能運動,另一半的受試者則每週運動不到1小時,再來測試兩組人的肌膚變化發現,年過40歲無論男女的受試者,皮膚的角皮層及組織層竟變得如20多歲的少男少女肌膚所呈現出的狀況。
看來,每週維持適度的運動,就能啟動「逆齡」的階段,無須全權仰賴昂貴的保養品,身體自然就有這種能力。

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克里米亞美女檢察總長娜塔莉亞(Natalia Vladimirovna Poklonskaya) 成日本動漫女主角
charles201309 在天空部落發表於08:16:53 | Life 人生
克里米亞美女檢察總長娜塔莉亞(Natalia Vladimirovna Poklonskaya 成日本動漫女主角
20140418 04:10
中國時報 黃菁菁/東京17日電
俄羅斯任命的克里米亞新任檢察總長娜塔莉亞,被網友變身為日本漫畫女主角。(取自網路)
 
俄羅斯上個月任命的克里米亞新任檢察總長(the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Crimea)娜塔莉亞(Natalia Vladimirovna Poklonskaya),因為長得太正了而在網上爆紅,網友競相把她變身為漫畫人物,美國的遊戲公司已計劃製作以她為主角的打擊犯罪遊戲。俄媒報導,她的女兒看到網上流傳著母親的漫畫插圖,還很開心地說,「我媽媽馬上要成為日本漫畫的女主角了!」
克里米亞311日首次在就任檢察總長的記者會上曝光,她那讓人眼睛為之一亮的美貌,立刻引起全球網友的注目,記者會片段上傳到YouTube後,至今已有超過上百萬人點擊,臉書上還出現她的粉絲團。
《富士晚報》引述俄羅斯電子媒體的報導指出,娜塔莉亞擔任檢察官12年,喜歡彈鋼琴和畫畫,幾年前離婚,育有1女。
俄媒報導,娜塔莉亞自知在網上受矚目而強勢地說,「姿色不曾成為我的障礙」,「12年的檢察官生涯中,我對付組織犯罪,把許多罪犯送進監獄,在那過程裡,姿色不曾成為我的障礙」。
俄媒還指出,有烏克蘭的作曲家製作娜塔莉亞的歌,歌詞裡寫著,「有時看著她,就好像被誘惑著要成為罪犯,有想犯罪的衝動」、「偷金庫、偷知事的座車逃跑」、「刑法正在召喚我!」以及「起訴我吧!」等。
美國的遊戲製作公司製作的「俠盜獵車手系列」(Grand Theft Auto)遊戲已計劃以娜塔莉亞為女主角。這是一款虛構的暴力、犯罪遊戲,女主角正是在城市裡維持秩序,懲罰罪犯的角色。

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烏克蘭危機干台灣何事?
charles201309 在天空部落發表於07:40:18 | Life 人生
烏克蘭危機干台灣何事?
20140417
社論-工商時報 編輯部
 
烏克蘭危機再度升溫,可能擴大成為本世紀最大的強國衝突,帶給全球金融市場與能源貿易難以想像的衝擊。但是,深陷在服貿爭議的台灣,無暇思考烏克蘭危機的影響,對於這個持續擴大中的風暴,睜一隻眼閉一隻眼,渾然不知大難與大機會之將至。
從去年1125日,已經被放逐的烏克蘭前總統亞努科維奇宣布廢棄與歐盟的貿易協定,正式引爆烏克蘭國內的流血衝突,至今即將屆滿半年。長達六個月的時間內,烏克蘭幾乎每日都有新的衝突,關於烏克蘭的報導,長期持續佔據歐洲主流媒體的頭條,連全球領袖群聚比利時召開核安高峰會議,媒體的焦點都還是圍繞著烏克蘭。在俄羅斯,普丁牢牢掌控的媒體更是天天以最大篇幅的報導,指責烏克蘭的法西斯暴民,批評美國與歐盟操縱烏克蘭危機,意圖顛覆俄羅斯的新帝國主義。
如果說,持續24天的學生攻佔立法院事件,對台灣的政治、經濟、社會甚至家庭等所有面向,都帶來劇烈衝擊,那麼烏克蘭危機對於全球經濟與政治的既有秩序,必然造成無可回覆的徹底改變,這是我們無法輕忽的事實。
烏克蘭是全球排名第38大經濟體,原本只有3百多億美元的外匯存底,貿易往來也侷限在俄國與歐盟等地區。即使烏克蘭發生經濟崩潰,直接的影響也遠遠不如2011年的歐豬五國倒債危機,但是烏克蘭卻像流沙那樣將所有大國捲入,不只越陷越深,最終可能引發全面的軍事、外交衝突,以及難以估算的金融危機。全球可能因為烏克蘭而面臨又一次的黑天鵝事件,身不由己捲入一場不斷負向循環的貿易與金融危機。
烏克蘭危機最大的風險,不在衝突本身,而在所謂的「歷史機運」。雖然各國表面上都在防範軍事衝突的升高,但是所有人都知道,如同烏克蘭脆弱的經濟實力一般,烏克蘭能夠引發的軍事衝突規模有限,但是在有限的軍事衝突背後,卻潛藏了徹底扭轉1989年柏林圍牆倒塌之後所建立的國際秩序。普丁、歐巴馬以及歐洲的政治領袖們表面憂慮,其實「見獵心喜」,個個都想在驚心動魄的大國博弈中,使出佛山無影手,想方設法重創敵對一方,瞬間建立自己的歷史地位。
美國總統歐巴馬採取了強硬的態度,在東烏克蘭分裂份子引爆新一輪的危機,迫使基輔派出武裝部隊「打擊恐怖主義份子」,可能因此演變成為內戰。歐巴馬政府繼之規劃了新一輪對普丁政府與俄羅斯的制裁,而且這輪制裁將從個人海外帳戶的凍結,升高為對俄羅斯國營金融、能源企業的全面封鎖。作為金融帝國的霸主,歐巴馬與他華爾街的朋友們,深知俄羅斯經濟體質快速衰敗,經濟與金融制裁是迫使普丁屈服的最佳利器。如果普丁不從,那麼經濟制裁也會將俄羅斯企業逼入生死存亡的胡同,進而從內部顛覆普丁政權。
事實上,烏克蘭原本就是俄羅斯的堂兄弟,一大一小的兩個國家,經濟結構相近,政治與黑金壟斷的寡頭政治結構相同,過去三年面對經濟衰退、外債暴增、通膨飛漲、上市公司市值大跌的困境,也如出一轍。烏克蘭因為債台高築,不得不背棄已經越來越窮的堂兄,夜奔富有的歐盟陣營,以彌補今年超過一百億美元的債務缺口。兩個堂兄弟唇亡齒寒,同步陷入經濟衰退的困境,不論歐盟官員或是歐巴馬政府,都看到這樣的機會,透過收編烏克蘭,期以終結普丁15年來的獨裁政權。這是美國與歐盟的歷史機運,此時不攻,更待何時。
但是普丁也看到他的歷史機運。藉著升高對歐美侵略的民族主義情緒,普丁在俄羅斯內部達到史無前例的權力集中,政黨內部堅壁清野,無人敢纓其鋒,所有媒體全數收編,而且藉著日復一日的政治宣傳,俄羅斯內部抵禦外侮的情緒昂揚,軍隊士氣大振。操作收回克里米亞、收回烏克蘭東部親俄省分,普丁都成功打出上手牌,讓美國措手不及,更凸顯歐盟內部鷹派與鴿派分裂的困境。
許多歐盟與美國官員認為,全球將會進入另一場美歐俄對抗的「新冷戰對立」,並且對全球的貿易與經濟復甦帶來深遠、負面的影響。俄羅斯股市在33日單日暴跌12%,瞬間蒸發新台幣17千億元的市值;只是這個新冷戰時期的前奏曲,從三月至今,全球金融市場震盪加劇,風險性資產(主要是股市)逐漸遭到基金經理人遺棄,除了台灣與韓國等少數國家,新興市場資金外逃的趨勢毫無停歇的跡象。
當我們還一直沉浸在股價指數漲破9千點的樂觀期待時,歐洲、美國、俄羅斯乃至中國,都已經著手進行新冷戰時期的戰略布局俄羅斯對歐盟的能源供給必然將會改變,大陸則被迫成為俄羅斯堅定的盟友;台灣雖然不至於被迫表態,我們與美國、大陸的和平紅利,將因此迅速蒸發,而台灣龐大的外匯存底與壽險資金,則會面臨資產組合調整的壓力。烏克蘭危機衝突還在升高當中,危機看似遙遠,但是長期、持續又意外不斷的變數,必然會對台灣帶來不可忽視的影響。


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DR.WU粉餅 驗出有毒重金屬鋇(Barium)
charles201309 在天空部落發表於10:50:31 | Life 人生
DR.WU粉餅 驗出有毒重金屬鋇(Barium
20140416 
蘋果日報
(方翊倩/綜合報導)
DR.WU粉餅,驗出有毒重金屬鋇。翻攝《壹週刊》
DR.WU粉餅,驗出有毒重金屬鋇。翻攝《壹週刊》
DR.WU登記的土城工廠地址,未見門牌號碼。翻攝《壹週刊》
DR.WU粉餅,驗出有毒重金屬鋇。翻攝《壹週刊》
DR.WU粉餅,驗出有毒重金屬鋇。翻攝《壹週刊》
 
《壹週刊》抽驗美妝龍頭DR.WU旗下產品,意外發現其中一項粉餅產品檢驗出有毒重金屬鋇(Barium),其數值還比環保署公告的污水排放容許值高出6倍。
今日出刊的《壹週刊》報導,《壹週刊》在北市新光三越A8館購買DR.WU旗下產品,包括「礦質無暇雙效粉餅(自然色)」和「角鯊潤澤修護精華」,送交SGS(台灣檢驗科技股份有限公司)進行常見的八大重金屬檢驗。結果礦質無暇雙效粉餅(自然色)驗出鋇。
327日再度購買DR.WU礦質無暇雙效粉餅(自然色)和礦質無暇雙效粉餅(白皙色)送驗。結果礦質無暇雙效粉餅(自然色)鋇含量高達6.76ppm,白皙色粉餅鋇含量是5.12ppm
醫師表示,重金屬鋇具有心臟、神經毒性,吸入或誤食後,會產生心律不整和血壓升高的症狀,嚴重會造成呼吸衰竭,以及傷害肝臟、腎臟功能,如果皮膚接觸到鋇,也會有刺激性,輕則發癢,重則潰爛。
DR.WU天昱生物科技公司田姓公關表示,礦質無暇雙效粉餅是委託韓國製造,他們沒有添加這個成分,為何會有鋇?可能是原料天然礦物晶石有鋇所致,公司事先有把關送驗。

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1985年4月16日台灣第一個試管嬰兒在台北榮總醫院出生 國內第一個試管嬰兒張先生現在29歲正在念動物學博士學位
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:26:27 | Cell Engineering 細胞工程
1985416日台灣第一個試管嬰兒在台北榮總醫院出生 國內第一個試管嬰兒張先生現在29歲正在念動物學博士學位
20140416
莫忘來時路/中國時報 黃如萍
29年前的今天,台灣第一個試管嬰兒在台北榮總醫院出生(張昇平提供),為不孕夫婦帶來希望。
 
29年前的今天,台灣第一個試管嬰兒在台北榮總醫院出生,為不孕夫婦帶來希望。
所謂試管嬰兒是由人工操作,將卵子和精子取出後體外受精,並培養成胚胎,26天後再將胚胎植回母體內,利用體外受精技術所生出來的嬰兒。
世界第一個試管嬰兒是1978年在英國誕生,台灣晚了7年,香港則是到1986年、大陸1988年才有本土試管嬰兒誕生。目前台灣有40多個不孕症診所或中心,每年約70008000個試管嬰兒出生,全球約有3百萬名試管嬰兒。
試管嬰兒成功機率大約35%,台灣和美國差不多;國際上最著名的就是一對以色列夫婦,前後做了8次試管嬰兒才順利懷孕。
為了增加成功機率,試管嬰兒常會植入多胞胎,考量母體與孩子教養,台灣限制不得超過4胞胎;多胞胎的成功機率也和歐美相同,約25%30%。台灣的紀錄保持人是連續3次進行試管嬰兒,成功產下一胞胎、三胞胎及雙胞胎,33男共6個小孩。
世界第一個試管嬰兒布朗小姐,已結婚並育有兒子,是上班族國內第一個試管嬰兒張先生,現在29歲,正在念動物學博士學位。醫學專家證實,試管嬰兒在健康上和一般人無異,人格與發展成就端視家庭教育與養成,以及個人的努力
試管嬰兒的誕生證明了醫學技術可以彌補不孕夫婦的遺憾,但有人擔心,未來隨著基因診斷、重組等技術的純熟,試管嬰兒的體外授精技術將被更精進的利用,未來訂做一個有諾貝爾獎得主頭腦、名模漂亮臉蛋與身材或NBA球星壯碩體格的下一代,不是夢想,遺傳、種族、倫理等概念將被顛覆,甚至連自我價值都得重新審視。試管嬰兒將造成文化、倫理與道德的爭議。

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英國東倫敦大學21歲男子毀容 手術重現俊臉 成模特兒 參加時裝秀
charles201309 在天空部落發表於08:42:15 | Life 人生
英國東倫敦大學21歲男子毀容 手術重現俊臉 成模特兒 參加時裝秀
20140416  
旺報即時 吳貴奉
羅賓斯整容前後對比照片。(摘自環球網)
 
模特兒一般對相貌要求很高,但英國一名曾經毀容的男子最後圓了自己的模特兒夢。據香港《東方日報》415日報導,英國東倫敦大學21歲男生羅賓斯樣貌俊朗,且獲模特兒公司相中,準備向模特兒工作發展。但沒想到後來因事故遭到暴打被毀容。
據環球網報導說,在20131221日晚,羅賓斯在科爾賈斯特一間酒吧外,見到一名女子遭6人圍住。他上前為女子解圍時,反遭圍毆,導致鼻骨、頰骨和眼窩被打傷。
羅賓斯在醫院看見自己樣貌被毀,以為模特兒夢已粉碎。但經過4個多月的治療,醫生為他進行臉部重整手術,包括固定鼻骨和在頰骨植入金屬片,羅賓斯最後重現俊臉。雖然他的左臉還有少許腫,和鼻子有疤痕,但他於2周前終得償宿願,首次踏上「天橋」,參加了時裝秀。

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國健署:肥胖、少運動、飲食不健康 三大新興致癌因子
charles201309 在天空部落發表於08:35:23 | Life 人生
國健署:肥胖、少運動、飲食不健康 三大新興致癌因子
20140416
中國時報 洪欣慈/台北報導
國健署指出,不健康的飲食、肥胖率高及運動量少是台灣人癌症的3項新型殺手。圖為民眾在休閒中心運動的畫面。(本報資料照片)
3大新興致癌因子
 
台灣癌症人數居高不下,致癌因子除了已知的菸酒、檳榔外,不健康的飲食、肥胖及運動量少,更是癌症的3項新型殺手。
國健署指出,肥胖者罹患乳癌、子宮內膜癌、結直腸癌等疾病的危險性皆較常人高12倍;身體運動量不足,也與乳癌、大腸癌息息相關。
國健署長邱淑媞表示,根據FAO(世界農糧組織)統計,台灣在肉類及油脂性食物的可獲性都高過日本、韓國等鄰近亞洲國家,顯示肉類和油脂性食物在國人飲食結構中相當重要。
愛吃肉卻少吃菜、少運動,國健署統計顯示,國內有150019歲以上成年人每日蔬果攝取量未達建議標準;男女缺乏運動的比率分別達64.4%73.1%,與OECD(經濟合作暨發展組織)其他30個國家相比,各排名第二及居冠。
中研院生物醫學研究所研究員潘文涵表示,肥胖、運動不足、不健康飲食三者息息相關,吃不對卻又不運動,等同雪上加霜;肥胖之所以成為新興致癌因子,原因在於肥胖細胞會分泌賀爾蒙、促進癌症發展,也會讓身體發炎指數升高、降低免疫力
她進一步說,飲食不當與各種癌症也都有關係,像食道癌與飲食過燙有關,大腸直腸癌則可能是攝取過量油脂,蔬果攝取量不足也與許多癌症密切相關。

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Seven Million Grads Transform China's Workforce in High-Tech Threat to U.S.
charles201309 在天空部落發表於08:07:13 | Life 人生
 

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Awakened by Cellular Stress:Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Population of Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue(3)
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:52:39 | Cell Engineering 細胞工程
Awakened by Cellular StressIsolation and Characterization of a Novel Population of Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue3
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064752
Results
Muse-ATs Isolated from Lipoaspirated Human Adipose Tissue
Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes (mature cells) and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing a heterogeneous population of cells, including adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), adipose stem cells (ASCs), mesenchymal stem cells, and fibroblasts.
We explored the possibility of both activating and isolating Muse-AT cells from their quiescent state by exposing them to cellular stress (Fig. 1A). Lipoaspirated material was first incubated in collagenase for 30 min at 37°C to release adipocytes (floating cells) and different cellular components present in the SVF as previously described. This material was then subjected to severe cellular stress, including long incubation with collagenase, low temperatures, low serum and hypoxia, to kill fragile adipose cells and release Muse-AT cells. Optimal conditions for the release of Muse-AT cells were determined to be 16 hours incubation with collagenase in DMEM medium without FCS at 4°C under very low O2, which subsequently gave way to a homogenous population of Muse-AT cells. Approximately 90% of isolated cells were both SSEA3 and CD105 positive, as determined by flow cytometry (Fig. 1B). This high purity is presumably due to the severity of the cellular stress conditions, responsible for the depletion of other cell types. As all other components of the adipose tissue lipoaspirate failed to survive, a population of highly purified Muse-AT cells was obtained, and therefore further purification processes were not necessary. Muse-AT cells were plated in both adherent and non-adherent cell culture dishes. We observed that Muse-AT cells can grow either in suspension or in adherence culture to form the characteristic cell clusters observed in ES cell-derived embryoid body, as described in bone marrow and dermal fibroblast-derived Muse cells in previous reports (Fig. 1C, D). Under both conditions, individual Muse-AT cells reached a diameter of around 10µm and cell clusters reached a diameter of up to 50µm by day 3 (Fig. 1C–D), which has been previously demonstrated to mark the limit of their proliferative capacity.
 
Figure 1. Isolation and morphologic characterization of Muse-ATs.
(A) Schematic of Muse-AT isolation and activation from their quiescent state by exposure to cellular stress. Muse-AT cells were obtained after 16 hours, with incubation with collagenase in DMEM medium without FCS at 4°C under very low O2 (See Methods). (B) FACS analysis demonstrates that 90% of isolated cells are both SSEA3 and CD105 positive. (C) Muse-AT cells can grow in suspension, forming spheres or cell clusters as well as individual cells (see red arrows) or (D) Muse-AT cells can adhere to the dish and form cell aggregates. Under both conditions, individual Muse-AT cells reached a diameter of approximately 10µm and cell clusters reached a diameter of up to 50µm, correlating to stem cell proliferative size capacity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064752.g001
 
Muse-ATs Spontaneously Express Pluripotent Stem Cell Markers
Upon transfer and adherence to chamber slides for immunofluorescent staining, both the Muse-AT cell clusters and individual Muse-AT cells strongly expressed all of the characteristic pluripotent stem cell markers that were examined. These included SSEA3, a cell-surface glycosphingolipid frequently used to detect human ES cells and to purify Muse cells from bone marrow and dermis; Oct3/4 a protein involved in the self-renewal of human ES cells; Nanog, a transcription factor involved in the self-renewal of human ES cells; Sox2, a transcription factor that controls genes involved in embryonic development; and TRA-1-60, which reacts with the antigen TRA-1-60 on the surface of embryonic germ cells and ES cells (Fig. 2). Comparatively, ASCs derived from the same lipoaspirated tissue were either negative or weakly positive for these pluripotent stem cell markers (Fig. 2).
 
Figure 2. Muse-ATs express pluripotent stem cell markers.
Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrates that Muse-AT aggregates, along with individual Muse-AT cells, express characteristic pluripotent stem cell markers, including SSEA3, Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, and TRA1-60. Comparatively, ASCs (right panel) derived from the same lipoaspirate under standard conditions (see above, were negative for these pluripotent stem cell markers. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). Original magnification, 600 X.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064752.g002

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台積電法說 陸行之提四問
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:16:33 | Life 人生
台積電法說 陸行之提四問
鉅亨網新聞中心 來源:聯合報系/udndata.com 2014-04-14
 
台積電法說會本周四登場,挑起敲響台股2014年首季法說行情重任,成為法人觀察半導體產業景氣、甚至台股後續走勢的重要指標。外資圈包括巴克萊、麥格理率先上調台積電目標價,對營運展望投下肯定票。
巴克萊亞太區半導體產業首席分析師陸行之延續慣例,在法說會前端出「四問台積電」。分別是:
一、至明年下半年前,台積電如何規畫20奈米與16奈米的產能?
二、20奈米、16奈米量產除可推升營收,台積電認為對整體毛利率影響為何?
三、台積電未來二年如何看待指紋感測器、心跳感測、智慧手表、智慧眼鏡等產品的營收貢獻?
四、台積電對2014年營收成長預估值是否有上調至二成的機會?
 
陸行之說,台積電不僅首季可繳出每股純益上看1.75元的成績單,展望第2季,受惠蘋果、高通、聯發科等大廠需求,台積電的28奈米、20奈米金屬閘極(HKMG)製程將放量,第2季營收季增率可達14%18%,產能利用率也會來到100%水準。
就個別公司競爭力分析,德意志證券半導體產業分析師周立中認為,因二線晶圓廠的良率相對較低,會驅使客戶積極向台積電下單,預料一直到年底前,台積電2820奈米等製程產能都將十分吃緊。半導體一線大廠獨霸局面,儼然成形。
麥格理證券亞太科技產業研究部主管蘇志凱對台積電第2季營運展望則更加樂觀。麥格理估計,台積電第2季將交出營收季增二成成績單,更引人注目的是,從本季起至2015年底,台積電每一季的每股純益都將突破2元。換言之,半導體龍頭的營運榮景,現在還只是開端,未來會更亮麗。
【記者簡威瑟、魏興中/台北報導】

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保有適量脂肪 才能維持身體健康 不要過分在意體重 反而維持適量活動、規律又均衡的飲食方式 才是保持健康的最好方法
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:09:49 | Bariatrics 肥胖醫學
保有適量脂肪 才能維持身體健康 不要過分在意體重 反而維持適量活動、規律又均衡的飲食方式 才是保持健康的最好方法
作者:【記者陳敬哲/綜合外電報導】 | 台灣新生報 – 2014415
 
健康是否與瘦直接劃上等號,可能要重新思考。學術期刊Journal of Epidemiology中提出,不到平均年紀死亡的民眾,70%體重過輕,人數遠大於身體肥胖者;然而社會風氣不斷將瘦與健康劃上等號,讓許多人不斷節食害怕體重上升,但身體保有適量脂肪,才能維持健康
美國心臟科醫師Carl Lavie提出,健康身體絕對不是瘦,而是保持良好的脂肪與肌肉比例,體重絕對不是魔鬼,某些方面,身體需要脂肪才能打敗疾病,但現在激進的社揮風氣,認為體脂肪是萬惡來源,不斷壓低身體質量指數,盡可能讓身體脂肪量趨近於零,可是這絕對不是健康之道,反而造成傷害。
民眾絕對不要過於擔心體脂肪,美國一名61歲男性,20年前曾經心臟病發,目前體重約86公斤,雖然體重超標,但醫生建議不要過分在意體重,反而維持適量活動、規律又均衡的飲食方式,才是保持健康的最好方法Carl Lavie提醒,許多美式足球運動員,雖然體重超出標準,但不代表不健康
身體質量指數能夠計算脂肪比率,超過25達到超重,超過30達到肥胖,但Carl Lavie提醒,體脂肪絕對不是惡夢,體脂肪比率超重的民眾,其實不需要過份擔心,只要每天保持活動,營養均衡的飲食方式,不會因多出標準體重10公斤導致傷害,仍然可以很健康維持生活。

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太陽花學運中的柄谷行人(からたに こうじん、Kojin Karatani)影子
charles201309 在天空部落發表於09:03:48 | Life 人生
太陽花學運中的柄谷行人(からたに こうじん、Kojin Karatani)影子
20140415 04:10
張瑞昌專欄-中國時報 張瑞昌
太陽花學運期間,就讀台大政研所的學運總指揮林飛帆,被媒體捕捉到懷裡揣著一本《柄谷行人談政治》(心靈工坊出版)的畫面,引起外界的關注議論。(左,本報資料照片)
 
柄谷行人(からたに こうじんKojin Karatani)何許人也?何以成為學運領袖的思想導師?
1941年出生的柄谷行人,擁有多重身分,他既是文學評論家,也是左翼批判理論家,更是革命行動的實踐者。早於1960年風起雲湧的安保鬥爭中,當時就讀東京大學經濟學部的柄谷,即投入「全學連」而成為安保世代的一員。
研究領域跨越哲學、經濟、政治及社會的柄谷行人,已被視為當代日本頗具分量的思想家,他曾先後受邀在耶魯、哥倫比亞、康乃爾及加州大學洛杉磯分校等美國名校擔任客座教授,重要著作有《倫理21》、《近代日本文學之起源》、《超越的批判康德與馬克思》、《邁向世界共和國》及《世界史的構造》等。
 
《柄谷行人談政治》學運衝向武裝 定被消滅
《柄谷行人談政治》一書是以訪談紀錄的形式,從60年代安保鬥爭與全共鬥運動的觀察,一路談到他如何走上思想家之路,還有他對歷史與反覆的思辨、對自由主義與新自由主義的反省,乃至對國家資本主義、日本代議制度的批判,以及九一一之後的世局解析。
學運領袖是如何從這本書取經,我無從知悉,不過最新一期的亞洲周刊訪問了《柄谷行人談政治》的譯者台南藝術大學音樂系主任林暉鈞,談到一些有意思的觀察心得。比方說,他認為,日本60年代的學運曾歷經兩個不同階段,1960年的第一次安保鬥爭,學運只是整個社運的一部分,但到了1968年第二次安保鬥爭,工、農皆已停擺,僅剩學運苦撐,最終走向激進路線,因而失去中產階級的支持
「我想林飛帆了解這一點,所以他一再強調和平、非暴力,但和平、非暴力會有它的限制,有點兩難。」林暉鈞如此說道,柄谷當年的學運經驗值得借鏡之處,「就是不要衝太遠、不要太快,不要衝到武裝去,那一定會被消滅。」
這是學者試著觀察學運與書中經驗的對比,柄谷還提出許多有趣的論述,像「昭和是明治的反覆」,藉以說明世界資本主義的周期循環長度約60(更長的是120年周期),簡單說,即1930年歷史發生的事件會在1990年重演,他以此理論解釋近衛文磨與其外孫細川護熙兩位前首相,在明治與昭和兩段歷史舞台的相對應。
 
示威是民主主義的支柱
又如他評論日本代議制已成貴族政治,有力政客皆是政治二世、三世,甚至四世的權貴勢力,這樣的代議制,「就是選舉出代表者的寡頭政治,這絕對稱不上是民眾參與的民主。」因此,柄谷說,「如果只憑藉代議制度,不可能改變民主主義。實際上即使在美國,也有很多示威活動;他們的選舉本身就帶有示威的性質。示威這種行為,正是民主主義的支柱。」
然而,也許柄谷的書的確指引了太陽花學運,但書中沒有提及的是,帶頭從事社會運動不可能不付出代價,尤其這個代價往往是改變一生的重大轉折。
當年的安保鬥爭,擔任東京大學全共鬥議長的山本義隆是物理系博士生,他被視為天才學者,未來角逐諾貝爾物理獎的熱門人選,結果他遭警方逮捕入獄,儘管出獄後仍勤於筆耕,不少物理教科書也皆出自他的手,但未完成學業的山本,只是一名大學講師,在福島核災後書寫著述,人們若還有印象,也不過就是電影《革命青春》中K一心想假冒扮演的那個學運領袖罷了。
二次安保中另一個足以和山本齊名的是日本大學全共鬥議長秋田明大,這位經濟系高材生率眾在校內構築防禦工事,與警方展開激烈戰鬥,最後雖然贏得勝利,卻引來政府介入,警察機動隊進入校園,而他也難逃入獄的命運。現在67歲的秋田,在故鄉廣島經營一家修車廠,幾年前他離婚後透過婚姻介紹所再婚,娶了一個年輕20歲的中國女人安度餘年。
柄谷有許多前進的理論,譬如他鼓吹個人成立小型共同體對抗國家和財團,研判「網路可能幫助示威活動的組織與集結」;又如他分析,10萬人的街頭抗議不會對政府構成威脅,真正對政府造成威脅的是,這種行為背後大量人民的反對意見
反覆閱讀咀嚼,書中訪談的內容彷彿似曾相識,我想這應該不是事後諸葛吧!

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強辯拒妥協 馬黨政崩盤 全民總統 與民作對 幾乎確定提前「跛鴨」 遑論追求「歷史定位」
charles201309 在天空部落發表於08:49:07 | Life 人生
強辯拒妥協 馬黨政崩盤 全民總統 與民作對 幾乎確定提前「跛鴨」 遑論追求「歷史定位」
20140415 04:10
中國時報 楊毅/新聞分析
黨國分崩離析
 
學運退場後,綠營迅速以「世代傳承」改革回應。反觀執政的國民黨,至今卻依然故我,未見有任何深切反省,裝作好像一切都沒發生過似的。不僅「馬王政爭」再起,郝胡朱吳連等中生代或地方諸侯,更是作壁上觀,黨內分裂危機隱隱浮現。「後馬時期」各方勢力接班卡位蠢蠢欲動、暗潮洶湧,是一大警訊。
 
民怨爆發 仍拒傾聽
順利連任總統、黨魁,馬英九黨政權力「一把抓」,以黨輔政、黨政密合的結果,卻是執政聲望跌落谷底,民調支持度僅剩個位數,創下另類「台灣奇蹟」。執政黨的灰頭土臉,孰令致之?
回顧馬英九執政6年多來,歷經美牛案、油電雙漲、復徵證所稅、12年國教等治理危機,黨內領導地位和執政威望,早已危如累卵,更讓社會累積、凝聚龐大「反馬」能量。
 
全民總統 與民作對
一向標榜公平正義的馬英九,從大埔拆遷、核四存廢到洪仲丘案等,卻不斷引爆社會反彈聲浪。不僅如此,學貸沉重壓力,低薪資、高房價等問題,更讓年輕人幾乎看不見未來希望,充滿焦慮感,背後牽涉世代剝奪、世代正義等嚴肅課題,終在此次學運「總爆發」。
面對民怨沸騰,馬英九選擇的往往不是放下身段,謙虛傾聽、溝通或對話,反而是凡事都要爭個輸贏,都要搞清是非曲直,沒有任何妥協、包容空間
表面上宣稱要當「全民總統」,實際上卻是處處和全民「作對」的總統,口惠而實不至。
去年9月政爭爆發後,馬英九堅持「大是大非」,不惜讓國會空轉,國政延宕,總統和國會議長對簿公堂,早已埋下憲政危機的導火線。
學生占領國會,只不過是點燃引信,讓「馬王心結」爆發,成為「壓倒駱駝的最後一根稻草」,服貿過關遙遙無期,馬英九可說是「輸到脫褲」了。
 
內外交迫 提前跛鴨
學運退潮後,未來將轉守為攻、遍地開花,各式各樣抗爭運動,勢必益發風起雲湧,馬政府無法維護民主法治的後果就是,未來馬走到哪,黑潮就會跟到哪,如影隨形。
不僅如此,郝龍斌、朱立倫等黨內中生代的合縱連橫;丁守中、連勝文為了角逐首都市長,殺得刀刀見骨,都嚴重挑戰馬的黨內領導地位。
此刻的馬英九內外交迫、腹背受敵,幾乎已確定提前面臨「跛鴨」危機,更遑論追求什麼「歷史定位」了。
一場太陽花學運,突顯出政府施政無能、執政黨失能的問題與荒謬,國民黨這家「百年老店」,若再繼續自我感覺良好,無視問題癥結,不趕緊振衰起弊、急起直追,失去政權和民心,只是遲早的事!

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人才瘋西進 搶高薪賺資歷 人才外流是國安問題
charles201309 在天空部落發表於08:42:49 | Life 人生
人才瘋西進 搶高薪賺資歷 人才外流是國安問題
【經濟日報記者陳致畬、張運祥/專題報導】   2014.04.15
圖/經濟日報提供
圖/經濟日報提供
 
台灣薪資零成長,大陸薪資連續十年兩位數增長,造成台灣人才在大陸職場性價比提高,結果是愈來愈多的大陸企業願意僱用台灣人,前往大陸工作的台灣人也有年輕化趨勢
電子商務帶來一波人才革命,網路金融顛覆傳統金融的創新獲利模式,催化台灣電商和金融人才外流大陸。十年前銀行業就有不少人才進入大陸銀行,協助對方發展信用卡業務;傳道授業的大學教授也早已絡繹於途,站上大陸高校舞台。
大陸市場大,楚材晉用,為了成就,也為薪資加倍,讓夢想起飛,這一波人才外流來勢洶洶,去的多,回來的少
本報記者陳致畬、張運祥分赴珠三角和長三角的廣州、上海,前進大陸企業,採訪在陸企第一線奮戰的台灣人,為讀者提供第一手觀察報導。
半年前,大陸一家企業老闆找上人力資源專家黃至堯,請他幫忙找一位年薪750萬元的行銷總監;黃至堯在台灣找個半死,就是找不到合適人選。黃至堯說:「台灣的問題出在工資太低,工資低就會變得沒機會。」
黃至堯是一勢人力資源研究中心的負責人,是個獵頭專家;每年經過他手中完成的獵才案件,總薪酬超過新台幣1億元以上。他的客戶開玩笑說,「不找黃至堯,當然找不到人。」
終究還是有黃至堯找不到的人,他說,台灣沒有領年薪750萬元的行銷總監;後來,他找了一個年薪350萬元的人給大陸老闆,對方居然不屑一顧。
 
大陸老闆 看的是格局
大陸老闆對黃至堯說,我一年的行銷預算是人民幣1億元,相當新台幣5億元,請一個年薪350萬元的人,不到人民幣100萬元,他有這個能力嗎?他會不貪汙嗎?
「大陸老闆說的沒錯,」黃至堯說,他們在意的是「格局」,5億元的預算計畫,對一個過去只做過1,000萬元預算的人來說,怎麼做得出50倍的計畫來?
商業發展研究院商業發展與政策所所長杜震華表示,「台灣薪資低廉,如果我從美國念完博士,也不想回來台灣服務,肯定去更高薪的香港、新加坡等地發展」。
「政府已警覺人才外流是國安問題,」杜震華說,台灣最具影響力的研究機構中研院經濟所,職缺已經多年沒人來應徵;政府應盡速拿出具體解決辦法,否則人才外流只會更加嚴重。
 
人才流失 成國安問題
台灣人才在大陸性價比高,人才外流大陸是個趨勢1111人力銀行最新調查,國內高達95%的上班族有意赴大陸發展,登陸就業意願比一年半前調查的77%高出很多。
1111人力銀行公關總監李大華說,台灣青年(1524歲)失業率高達12.66%,顯示青年就業的困境,越年輕的族群西進意願越高,反應出台灣嚴峻的就業環境,已成為對青年人才外移的推力。
這幾年各國人才湧進大陸一線城市,上海、北京房價和房租只漲不回,建築設計是直接受惠的行業,問題是這個行業也找不到人來做。有些台商被迫回台再設一家公司,把大陸的工作拿回台灣來做,這已變成一種趨勢。
「建築設計缺人,只好把上海公司的案子拿回台灣來消化。」上海奇顯建築設計公司總經理沈凱說,台灣設計人才到大陸工作,薪水是台灣的1.52一、二年後,大陸公司就以多出三到四成的薪資挖角;台灣員工發現他是從一個小池子游到大海裡,於是就用海的條件跟台商談薪資,最後很多台灣企業就死在海上。
他感慨地說,陸企財大氣粗,台商把人才帶到大陸去,都是在幫大陸企業獵才和培訓。「人才流動就像做貿易一樣,低買高賣,」黃至堯說,建築設計人才大學畢業薪水23萬元,做個三、五年後,也不過45萬元,到大陸去就翻倍了。
現在台灣大學生海外留學,同學都是大陸人,學成後第一站是直接去大陸就業,根本沒想過回台灣工作。廣州旅遊度假集團人力資源部培訓總監呂秀如表示,有機會還是想回台灣貢獻所學,問題是台灣能給出多少機會?
2014/04/15 經濟日報】

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Awakened by Cellular Stress:Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Population of Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue(2)
charles201309 在天空部落發表於18:12:23 | Cell Engineering 細胞工程
Awakened by Cellular StressIsolation and Characterization of a Novel Population of Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue2
Methods
Isolation of Muse-AT cells from Lipoaspirated Fat
Lipoaspirates (100–200 g per aspirate) were obtained from subcutaneous abdominal adipose of women undergoing elective liposuction. None of the investigators of this study had any contact with, nor any knowledge of any personal information relating to, these patients. Furthermore, human subjects were unidentifiable as well as all their characteristics and clinical records. Therefore, this study did not meet the criteria of human subjects research and HHS regulations did not apply (45 CFR 46.102(f)).
Lipoaspirate was repeatedly Washed with PBS until blood was completely removed from the tissue, and then incubated with equal volume of DMEM containing collagenase (0.1%, Sigma Aldrich) for 30 min at 37°C in a shaking incubator at 110 rpm, followed by incubation in 4°C, while still in collagenase and nutritionally deficient medium (no FCS), for 16 hours under severe hypoxia conditions. Digested material was then centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 minutes at 4°C. Supernatant containing adipose cell debris (dead adipocytes, macrophages, red blood cells, adipose stem cells among other cell components) was removed by aspiration and the remaining cell Pellets were washed several times with PBS. Pellets were re-suspended in PBS and incubated with a red blood cell lysis buffer (eBiosciences, San Diego, CA) for 10 min at R/T (2×). Remaining cell pellets containing cells highly resistant to severe cellular stress, were re-suspended in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium 1× (DMEM; CellGro, MediatechInc, Manassas, VA) comprised of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Thermo Scientific Hyclone, Logan, UT) and 5% antibiotic-antimyocotic solution (CellGro, Mediatech Inc, Manassas, VA), and plated as cells in suspension as well as adherent cells. For ASC isolation, lipoaspirate material was subjected to collagenase digestion (0.1%, Sigma Aldrich) for 30 min at 37°C in a shaking incubator at 110 rpm, and ASCs were isolated and cultured as previously described.
 
Flow Cytometry Analysis
Floating Muse-AT cells were cultured in DMEM/10% FCS for 2 days followed by FACS analysis. Cells were washed in 2% inactivate FCS/0.05% sodium Azide/PBS and were re-suspended in 100 µl of the same buffer and incubated at 4°C for 1 hour in the presence or absence of primary unconjugated rat anti-human SSEA3 (EMD Millipore; Billerica, Massachusetts). Cells were then washed twice with the same buffer and incubated with the corresponding secondary FITC-conjugated anti-rat IgM (BD Biosciences; San Diego, CA) for 45 minutes at 4°C. After two consecutive washes, cells were incubated with PE-mouse anti-human CD105 (BD Biosciences, San Diego, CA) at 4°C for 1 hour. Cells were then washed and re-suspended in 200 µl of the same buffer. Analysis of count and cell type was performed using a FACS Calibur flow cytometer and cEllQuest Pro software.
 
Immunocytochemistry
Cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (20 min at R/T), washed in PBS, then incubated in 0.2% Triton for 20 min. After 2 successive washes in PBS, cells were blocked with 10% normal goat serum in 1% BSA solution for 60 min at R/T. Cells were then incubated with the primary antibodies overnight at 4°C. The following pluripotent stem cell markers were used: rat anti-human stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA3, Millipore, Billerica, MA), mouse anti-human octamer-binding transcription factor 3 and 4 (Oct3/4, Santa Cruz Biotech, Santa Cruz, CA), rabbit anti-human Nanog (Millipore, Billerica, MA), rabbit anti-human SRY-box 2 (Sox2, Millipore, Billerica, MA), and mouse anti-human TRA-1-60 (Abcam, Cambridge, MA); for mesenchymal cell lineages: rabbit anti-human preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1, [a.k.a. delta-like 1 homolog (drosophila), DLK1] preadipocyte marker, Santa Cruz Biotech, Santa Cruz, CA); mouse anti-human myosin D (MyoD, myocyte marker, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), and mouse anti-human smooth muscle actin (SMA, myocyte marker, Thermo Scientific, Waltham MA); for endodermal cell lineages: mouse anti-human pan keratin (Santa Cruz, CA); rabbit anti-human α-fetoprotein (Dako, Santa Clara, CA); and mouse anti-human cytokeratin 7 (Millipore, Billerica, MA); and for ectodermal cell lineages: mouse anti-human neuron specific enolase (NSE, Millipore, Billerica, MA); rabbit anti-human glutamate receptor (Abcam, Cambridge, MA); rabbit anti-human NeuroD (Chemicon, Temecula CA); mouse anti-human nestin (Chemicon, Temecula CA); and rabbit anti-human microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2, AbDSerotech, Raleigh, NC). All primary antibodies were diluted 1:200 in PBS/0.1% BSA solution. Following treatment with primary antibodies, cells were washed 3 times with PBS and incubated for 1 hour at R/T with PBS/0.1% BSA containing secondary immunofluorescent antibodies (1:1000) Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated dye (mouse or rat, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) or Texas Red conjugated dye (rabbit, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Cells were washed 4X with PBS and treated with PBS/0.2% DAPI for 10 minutes. Cells were then washed 3X with PBS. Images were acquired with an Evos immunofluorescence inverted microscope (Advanced Microscopy, Mill Creek, WA).
 
Induced Differentiation of Muse-ATs
Various differentiation media were used to induce differentiation of Muse cells-AT to the three germline cell lineages. For adipocyte formation, adherent Muse-AT cells were treated with adipogenic differentiation medium containing DMEM with 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine, 1 µM dexamethasone, 10 µM insulin, 200 µM indomethacin and PPAR-γ (ZenBio, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC) over 3 or 6 days at 37°C and 5% CO2. Adipocytes were detected using fluorescence lipid drop marker BODIPY-C16 (1:1000, Invitrogen, Carslbad, CA) following manufacturer specification.
For myocyte formation, adherent Muse-AT cells were incubated in DMEM containing with 10% FBS, 5% NHS, 50µM hydrocortisone, and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution over 3 or 6 days at 37°C and 5% CO2. Smooth muscle cells were identified by expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) and skeletal muscle cells myosin D.
For hepatocyte and biliary cell induction, adherent Muse-AT cells were incubated in hepatocyte differentiation medium for 3 or 6 days, as previously described adherent Muse-AT cells were incubated in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 10 µg/ml insulin, 5.5 µg/ml transferring, 6.7 ng/ml sodium selenite (ITS; Gibco, Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY), 10 nM dexamethasone (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), 100 ng/ml hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ) and 50 ng/ml and fibroblast growth factor- 4 (FGF-4, R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) for 3 or 6 days. Hepatocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry using cytokeratin 7 and α-fetoprotein expression.
For neural cell formation, Muse cells-AT were incubated as non-adherent cells in ultra-low attachment plates (Corning Incorporated, Life Sciences, Manassas, VA) in the presence of neural differentiation medium 1 containing Neurobasal medium (Gibco, Life Technology, Grand Island, NY) supplemented with B-27 supplement serum free (Gibco, Life Technology, Grand Island, NY), 100 µg/ml kanamycin (Gibco, Life Technology, Grand Island, NY), 2 mM glutamine (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), 30 ng/ml bFGF (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ) and 30 ng/ml EGF (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ) for 7 days. Cells were then transferred to polystyrene culture slides (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and cultured for another 7 days as adherent cells in the presence of neural differentiation medium 2 containing 1 DMEM supplemented with 2% FCS, 25 ng/ml bFGF and 25 ng/ml BDNF (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ). Neural cells were identified by immunohistochemistry using nestin and MAP2 as indicated above.
 
Microarray Analysis
Muse-AT cells and ASCs were isolated from lipoaspirate material of three different patients. RNA was extracted using an RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) and analyzed by Hokkaido System Science Co. Ltd. Array signals were processed and normalized using the GeneSpring GX version 12.1.0 (Agilent Technologies). Data has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus databank with the access number GSE46353. The criteria for selecting differentially-expressed genes were preset as at least 2-fold difference in either direction plus statistical significance (P<0.05, unpaired t test). Microarray analysis was performed using the software program IPA via a license to Ingenuity (https://analysis.ingenuity.com/pa/login/login.jsp) to identify (1) functional pathways (cell function, physiological function, diseases), (2) canonical signaling pathways (3) networks of related genes derived from genes changed in the analyzed comparisons and (4) upstream regulators. Further information regarding gene function was obtained from the program GeneDecks V3 at www.genecards.org. Statistical analyses were carried out by Fischer’s exact test (as performed automatically by the software). In determining which genes are only expressed in either Muse-ATs or ASCs, all samples, having been performed in triplicate, had to display uniform detection (indicated with at least 100 standard units) or absence (at most 30 standard units) along with a P-value <0.05.

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Awakened by Cellular Stress:Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Population of Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue(1)
charles201309 在天空部落發表於18:10:25 | Cell Engineering 細胞工程
Awakened by Cellular StressIsolation and Characterization of a Novel Population of Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue1
Saleh Heneidi, Ariel A. Simerman, Erica Keller, Prapti Singh, Xinmin Li, Daniel A. Dumesic, Gregorio Chazenbalk   
PublishedJune 05, 2013
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0064752
 
Abstract
Advances in stem cell therapy face major clinical limitations, particularly challenged by low rates of post-transplant cell survival. Hostile host factors of the engraftment microenvironment such as hypoxia, nutrition deprivation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species can each contribute to unwanted differentiation or apoptosis. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new population of adipose tissue (AT) derived pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress-Enduring (Muse) Cells, which are isolated using severe cellular stress conditions, including long-term exposure to the proteolytic enzyme collagenase, serum deprivation, low temperatures and hypoxia. Under these conditions, a highly purified population of Muse-AT cells is isolated without the utilization of cell sorting methods. Muse-AT cells grow in suspension as cell spheres reminiscent of embryonic stem cell clusters. Muse-AT cells are positive for the Pluripotency markers SSEA3, TR-1-60, Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2, and can spontaneously differentiate into Mesenchymal, endodermal and ectodermal cell lineages with an efficiency of 23%, 20% and 22%, respectively. When using specific differentiation media, differentiation efficiency is greatly enhanced in Muse-AT cells (82% for mesenchymal, 75% for endodermal and 78% for ectodermal). When compared to adipose stem cells (ASCs), microarray data indicate a substantial up-regulation of Sox2, Oct3/4, and Rex1. Muse-ATs also exhibit gene expression patterns associated with the down-regulation of genes involved in cell death and survival, embryonic development, DNA replication and repair, cell cycle and potential factors related to oncogenecity. Gene expression analysis indicates that Muse-ATs and ASCs are mesenchymal in origin; however, Muse-ATs also express numerous Lymphocytic and Hematopoietic genes, such as CCR1 and CXCL2, encoding chemokine receptors and ligands involved in stem cell homing. Being highly resistant to severe cellular stress, Muse-AT cells have the potential to make a critical impact on the field of regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy.
 
Citation: Heneidi S, Simerman AA, Keller E, Singh P, Li X, et al. (2013) Awakened by Cellular Stress: Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Population of Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue. PLoS ONE 8(6): e64752. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064752
Editor: Alexander V. Ljubimov, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, United States of America
Received: February 7, 2013; Accepted: April 17, 2013; Published: June 5, 2013
Copyright: © 2013 Heneidi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: Part of these studies were supported by the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology at University of California Los Angeles and by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, National Institutes of Health through cooperative agreement U54 HD071836. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
 
Introduction
Cellular stress is induced by abrupt disruption of the physiological niche: the optimal home most conducive to cell survival. Although adult stem cells have been considered an attractive source for cell therapy, their effectiveness and efficiency is hindered by a frequently low survival rate due to their exposure to a high cellular stress environment upon transplantation. This key limitation is observed when utilizing adult stem cells for regenerative purposes, as typical cell engraftment yields are extremely low (<3%). Multiple factors contribute to this low rate of cell survival, including the harsh environment of the recipient site, harboring pro-apoptotic factors including hypoxia, malnutrition, pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The severity of cellular stress is heightened when stem cells are administered to an acutely injured area, such as a myocardial infarction, stroke, or a peripheral ischemic injury, as are the chances of unwanted activation or differentiation of surviving cells. It is extremely difficult to alter the environment of the damaged tissue, which necessitates a viable alternative: to improve post-transplant stem cell survival rates through the administration of a stem cell population with the adaptations necessary for survival in the hostile host environment.
One potential solution to this problem is to gradually adapt stem cells to cellular stress prior to cell delivery. It has been shown that introducing stem cells to hypoxic conditions in vitro for a duration of 24–48 hours, also known as Hypoxia preconditioning (HPC), provides the opportunity for these cells to adapt to low oxygen concentrations, thus increasing chances for survival upon reintroduction to hypoxic conditions in vivo. HPC is a promising solution to the severe apoptosis that accompanies transplantation as it induces an adaptive mechanism that increases the likelihood of cell survival in a pro-apoptotic microenvironment in vivo. Adult human Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adult Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have similarly been shown to increase expansion, survival, and self-renewal under hypoxia conditions while maintaining the capability for multi-lineage differentiation.
Another potential solution to the problem of successful delivery of stem cells to a hostile host environment is to utilize a purified population of stem cells, isolated during exposure to severe cellular stress conditions (e.g. long time incubation to proteolytic enzymes, hypoxic conditions, serum deprivation, low temperatures), for engraftment. Recently, a new stem cell population has been isolated from mesenchymal tissues such as human skin fibroblasts and bone marrow stromal cells under cellular stress conditions. These cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress-Enduring (Muse) Cells, are of Mesenchymal stem cell origin and comprise 1–3% of the entire cell population. Muse cells exhibit characteristics of both Mesenchymal and Pluripotent stem cells. They are double positive for CD105, a mesenchymal stem cell marker, and Stage specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA3), well known for the characterization of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (ES) from bone marrow aspirates or from cultured mesenchymal cells such as bone marrow stromal cells and dermal fibroblasts. They express Pluripotency markers including Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2, differentiate into cells of ectodermal, endodermal, and mesodermal lineages both in vitro and in vivo, and have the ability to self-renew. Advantageously, Muse cells do not appear to undergo tumorigenic proliferation, and therefore would not be prone to produce teratomas in vivo, nor do they induce immuno-rejection in the host upon autologous transplantation. In addition, Muse cells are shown to home into the damage site in vivo and spontaneously differentiate into Tissue specific cells according to the Microenvironment to contribute to Tissue regeneration when infused into the blood stream. Therefore, they exhibit the potential to make critical contributions to tissue regeneration in the absence of restrictions attributed to the difficult extraction of bone marrow stromal cells and human skin fibroblasts, and time-consuming purification methods such as cell sorting. In order to increase the viability of Muse cells as a source of tissue regeneration, a more accessible supply must be utilized.
Harvesting human adipose tissue by Lipoaspiration is a safe and non-invasive procedure, and hundreds of millions of cells can be isolated from 1–2 liters of lipoaspirate material. Therefore, adipose tissue could prove the ideal source for Muse cell isolation as opposed to bone marrow or dermis. Using lipoaspirate material, we developed a novel methodology for the isolation of a population of human Muse cells under Severe cellular stress conditions (long term incubation with Proteolytic enzyme, 4°C, serum deprivation, and Hypoxia). Purification of human Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-ATs) does not require the use of cell sorting, magnetic beads or special devices. Muse-ATs can grow either in suspension, forming cell spheres, or as adherent cells forming cell aggregates similar to human ES cell-derived embryoid bodies as previously reported. Furthermore, Muse-AT cells express Pluripotent stem cell markers and a variety of markers indicative of all three germlines. Upon the introduction to specific culture conditions, Muse-AT cells can differentiate to mesenchymal (adipocytes, skeletal and smooth muscle cells), endodermal (hepatocytes and biliary ducts) and ectodermal (neural cells) cell lineages both spontaneously and by differentiation induction. Immunocytochemistry and microarray data demonstrate Up-regulation of the Pluripotent stem cell markers Sox2, Oct3/4, and Rex1 in Muse-AT cells, as compared to previously studied multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs). Microarray analysis reveals that Muse-AT cells highly express genes involved in Cellular protection against Oxidative stress. Additionally, these cells also exhibit up regulation of CXCL2 gene expression, a critical Chemokine involved in stem cell Homing. Muse-AT cells display down regulation of genes involved in cell death and survival, embryonic development, organism survival, cellular assembly and organization, mitosis, DNA replication, recombination and repair. Because lipoaspiration is a safe and non-invasive procedure and Muse-AT cell isolation requires a simple yet highly efficient purification technique, Muse-AT cells could provide an ideal source of pluripotent-like stem cells with the potential to have a critical impact on regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy.

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